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    2016

    • Till Steinbach, Philipp Meyer, Stefan Buschmann, and Franz Korf. Extending OMNeT++ Towards a Platform for the Design of Future In-Vehicle Network Architectures. In: Proceedings of the 3rd OMNeT++ Community Summit, Brno, Czech Republic, September 15, 2016. Sep. 2016, ArXiv e-prints,
      [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [ArXiv], [Bibtex]
      @InProceedings{   smbk-eotpd-16,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Philipp Meyer AND Stefan Buschmann AND
                        Franz Korf},
        title         = {Extending OMNeT++ Towards a Platform for the Design of
                        Future In-Vehicle Network Architectures},
        booktitle     = {{Proceedings of the 3rd OMNeT++ Community Summit, Brno,
                        Czech Republic, September 15, 2016}},
        editor        = {Anna Foerster AND Vladim\'{i}r Vesely AND Antonio Virdis AND
                        Michael Kirsche},
        month         = sep,
        year          = 2016,
        publisher     = {ArXiv e-prints},
        eprinttype    = {arxiv},
        eprint        = {1609.05179},
        eprintclass   = {cs.NI},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Ruben Jungnickel, Michael Köhler, and Franz Korf. Efficient Automotive Grid Maps using a Sensor Ray based Refinement Process. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV). Pages 668—675, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Jun. 2016, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Poster (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      The occupancy grid mapping technique is widely used for environmental mapping of moving vehicles. Occupancy grid maps with fixed cell size have been extended using the quadtree implementation with adaptive cell size. Adaptive grid maps have proven to be more resource efficient than fixed cell size grid maps. Dynamic cell sizes introduce the necessity of a split and merge process to trigger the refinement of grid cells. This paper presents a novel ray-based refinement process in order to choose the appropriate resolution for the sensor observation. Based on measurement conflicts some approaches use an iterative refinement process until all conflicts are solved. In contrast this paper presents an non-iterative approach based on the sensor resolution. Using the measurement data efficiently we propose an algorithm, which solves the problem of partially free cells in an adaptive grid map. The proposed algorithm is compared against other widely used algorithms and methodologies.

      @InProceedings{   jkk-eagms-16,
        author        = {Ruben Jungnickel AND Michael K{\"o}hler AND Franz Korf},
        title         = {{Efficient Automotive Grid Maps using a Sensor Ray based
                        Refinement Process}},
        booktitle     = {IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)},
        location      = {Gotenburg, Sweden},
        month         = jun,
        year          = 2016,
        pages         = {668--675},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        doi           = {10.1109/IVS.2016.7535459},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7535459},
        abstract      = {The occupancy grid mapping technique is widely used for
                        environmental mapping of moving vehicles. Occupancy grid
                        maps with fixed cell size have been extended using the
                        quadtree implementation with adaptive cell size. Adaptive
                        grid maps have proven to be more resource efficient than
                        fixed cell size grid maps. Dynamic cell sizes introduce the
                        necessity of a split and merge process to trigger the
                        refinement of grid cells. This paper presents a novel
                        ray-based refinement process in order to choose the
                        appropriate resolution for the sensor observation. Based on
                        measurement conflicts some approaches use an iterative
                        refinement process until all conflicts are solved. In
                        contrast this paper presents an non-iterative approach
                        based on the sensor resolution. Using the measurement data
                        efficiently we propose an algorithm, which solves the
                        problem of partially free cells in an adaptive grid map.
                        The proposed algorithm is compared against other widely
                        used algorithms and methodologies.},
        langid        = {english}
      }

    2015

    • Till Steinbach, Philipp Meyer, Stefan Buschmann, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Demo: Prototyping Next-Generation In-Car Backbones Using System-Level Network Simulation. In: 2015 IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). Oct. 2015,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Poster (pdf)], [Bibtex]

      We show a network simulation environment for assessing Ethernet-based concepts and technologies of next generation in-car networks, as well as their protocols, and possible deployment. Among others, the simulation models contain the core concepts of AS6802 and AFDX, Ethernet AVB and IEEE 802.1Q as well as legacy fieldbus technologies like CAN and FlexRay and automotive gateway designs to interconnect the technologies. All modules can be flexibly configured and combined or used as a foundation for the implementation of new ideas. System-level network simulation allows us to design and evaluate backbone architectures and develop protocols and configurations that comply with the rigid real-time requirements of in-car communication. The shown tool chain is open source and can be downloaded for experiments and reviews of published simulation studies at http://core4inet.realmv6.org

      @InProceedings{   smbks-pnibu-15,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Philipp Meyer AND Stefan Buschmann AND
                        Franz Korf AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Demo: Prototyping Next-Generation In-Car Backbones Using
                        System-Level Network Simulation}},
        booktitle     = {2015 IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN)},
        month         = oct,
        year          = 2015,
        abstract      = {We show a network simulation environment for assessing
                        Ethernet-based concepts and technologies of next generation
                        in-car networks, as well as their protocols, and possible
                        deployment. Among others, the simulation models contain the
                        core concepts of AS6802 and AFDX, Ethernet AVB and IEEE
                        802.1Q as well as legacy fieldbus technologies like CAN and
                        FlexRay and automotive gateway designs to interconnect the
                        technologies. All modules can be flexibly configured and
                        combined or used as a foundation for the implementation of
                        new ideas. System-level network simulation allows us to
                        design and evaluate backbone architectures and develop
                        protocols and configurations that comply with the rigid
                        real-time requirements of in-car communication. The shown
                        tool chain is open source and can be downloaded for
                        experiments and reviews of published simulation studies at
                        http://core4inet.realmv6.org},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Till Steinbach, Hyung-Taek Lim, Franz Korf, Thomas C. Schmidt, Daniel Herrscher, and Adam Wolisz. Beware of the Hidden! How Cross-traffic Affects Quality Assurances of Competing Real-time Ethernet Standards for In-Car Communication. In: 2015 IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). Pages 1—9, Oct. 2015,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [Video of Presentation], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Real-time Ethernet is expected to become the core technology of future in-car communication networks. Following its current adoption in subsystems for info- and entertainment, broadband Ethernet promises new features in the core of upcoming car series. Its full potential will enfold when deploying Ethernet-based backbones that consolidate all automotive domains on a single physical layer at increased bandwidth but reduced complexity and cost. In such a backbone, traffic with a variety of real-time requirements and best-effort characteristics will share the same physical infrastructure. However, certain applications like online diagnosis, data- or firmware updates, and access to off-board backends will introduce bursty high traffic loads to the sensitive core of the cars communication network. In this work, we analyze the robustness against cross-traffic of real-time Ethernet protocols. Based on a realistic in-car scenario, we demonstrate that background cross-traffic can have significant impact on in-car backbone networks—-even for real-time protocols with strict prioritization. By comparing the real-time approaches Ethernet AVBs asynchronous credit based shaping with the time-triggered and rate-constrained traffic classes of Time-triggered Ethernet (AS6802) we quantify how different media access policies suffer from low priority bursts of applications such as diagnosis, online updates or backend-based services. Our simulation study of a realistic in-car backbone design and traffic model reveals that in a realistic in-car network design, cross-traffic may increase end-to-end latency by more than 500% while the jitter can become 14 times higher than for a network without background tasks. We discuss ways to mitigate these degrading effects.

      @InProceedings{   slksh-bhcan-15,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Hyung-Taek Lim AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt AND Daniel Herrscher AND Adam Wolisz},
        title         = {{Beware of the Hidden! How Cross-traffic Affects Quality
                        Assurances of Competing Real-time Ethernet Standards for
                        In-Car Communication}},
        booktitle     = {2015 IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN)},
        month         = oct,
        year          = 2015,
        pages         = {1--9},
        isbn          = {978-1-4673-6770-7},
        doi           = {10.1109/LCN.2015.7366277},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7366277},
        abstract      = {Real-time Ethernet is expected to become the core
                        technology of future in-car communication networks.
                        Following its current adoption in subsystems for info- and
                        entertainment, broadband Ethernet promises new features in
                        the core of upcoming car series. Its full potential will
                        enfold when deploying Ethernet-based backbones that
                        consolidate all automotive domains on a single physical
                        layer at increased bandwidth but reduced complexity and
                        cost. In such a backbone, traffic with a variety of
                        real-time requirements and best-effort characteristics will
                        share the same physical infrastructure. However, certain
                        applications like online diagnosis, data- or firmware
                        updates, and access to off-board backends will introduce
                        bursty high traffic loads to the sensitive core of the cars
                        communication network. In this work, we analyze the
                        robustness against cross-traffic of real-time Ethernet
                        protocols. Based on a realistic in-car scenario, we
                        demonstrate that background cross-traffic can have
                        significant impact on in-car backbone networks---even for
                        real-time protocols with strict prioritization. By
                        comparing the real-time approaches Ethernet AVBs
                        asynchronous credit based shaping with the time-triggered
                        and rate-constrained traffic classes of Time-triggered
                        Ethernet (AS6802) we quantify how different media access
                        policies suffer from low priority bursts of applications
                        such as diagnosis, online updates or backend-based
                        services. Our simulation study of a realistic in-car
                        backbone design and traffic model reveals that in a
                        realistic in-car network design, cross-traffic may increase
                        end-to-end latency by more than 500\% while the jitter can
                        become 14 times higher than for a network without
                        background tasks. We discuss ways to mitigate these
                        degrading effects.},
        langid        = {english},
        note          = {LCN Best Paper Award}
      }

    2014

    • Soeren Rumpf, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Software Stacks for Mixed-critical Applications: Consolidating IEEE 802.1 AVB and Time-triggered Ethernet in Next-generation Automotive Electronics. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin). Pages 14—18, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Real-time Ethernet variants are expected to build the future communication infrastructure in cars. First camera based driver assistance functions will communicate using IEEE 802.1 AVBs credit-based shaping. But for the strict timing requirements of automotive control-traffic, AVBs current timing guarantees are insufficient. The upcoming IEEE 802.1Qbv standard proposes synchronous time-triggered traffic to overcome these limitations. This paper presents a low footprint microcontroller based communication architecture, that supports both traffic classes in parallel while using standard hardware components. It allows first realistic performance analyses of coexistent traffic shaping strategies in a software based implementation.

      @InProceedings{   rsks-ssmac-14,
        author        = {Soeren Rumpf AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas
                        C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Software Stacks for Mixed-critical Applications:
                        Consolidating IEEE 802.1 AVB and Time-triggered Ethernet in
                        Next-generation Automotive Electronics}},
        booktitle     = {2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics
                        - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin)},
        location      = {Berlin},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {14--18},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-6165-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2014.7034239},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7034239},
        abstract      = {Real-time Ethernet variants are expected to build the
                        future communication infrastructure in cars. First camera
                        based driver assistance functions will communicate using
                        IEEE 802.1 AVBs credit-based shaping. But for the strict
                        timing requirements of automotive control-traffic, AVBs
                        current timing guarantees are insufficient. The upcoming
                        IEEE 802.1Qbv standard proposes synchronous time-triggered
                        traffic to overcome these limitations. This paper presents
                        a low footprint microcontroller based communication
                        architecture, that supports both traffic classes in
                        parallel while using standard hardware components. It
                        allows first realistic performance analyses of coexistent
                        traffic shaping strategies in a software based
                        implementation.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Friedrich Groß, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, Thomas C. Schmidt, and Bernd Schwarz. A Hardware/Software Co-Design Approach for Ethernet Controllers to Support Time-triggered Traffic in the Upcoming IEEE TSN Standards. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin). Pages 9—13, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Due to the increasing bandwidth and timing requirements, next generation communication backbones in cars will most likely base on real-time Ethernet variants that satisfy the demands of the new automotive applications. The upcoming IEEE 802.1Qbv standard shows communication approaches based on coordinated time devision multiple access (TDMA) to be good candidates for providing communication with determinism and highly precise timing. Implementing time-triggered architectures in software requires significant development effort and computational power. This paper shows a scalable HW/SW co-design approach for new real-time Ethernet controllers based on the partitioning into communication and application components. The tasks required for communication are divided: Time-critical and computationally intensive parts are realised in dedicated hardware modules allowing the attached CPU to fulfil the timing requirements of the automotive application without interference. The evaluation using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based prototype implementation shows that the precision for the time-triggered transmission and the performance of the proposed implementation of the required synchronisation protocols satisfies the requirements of applications in the automotive domain.

      @InProceedings{   gskss-hscda-14,
        author        = {Friedrich Gro{\ss} AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt AND Bernd Schwarz},
        title         = {{A Hardware/Software Co-Design Approach for Ethernet
                        Controllers to Support Time-triggered Traffic in the
                        Upcoming IEEE TSN Standards}},
        booktitle     = {2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics
                        - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin)},
        location      = {Berlin},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {9--13},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-6165-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2014.7034229},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7034229},
        abstract      = {Due to the increasing bandwidth and timing requirements,
                        next generation communication backbones in cars will most
                        likely base on real-time Ethernet variants that satisfy the
                        demands of the new automotive applications. The upcoming
                        IEEE 802.1Qbv standard shows communication approaches based
                        on coordinated time devision multiple access (TDMA) to be
                        good candidates for providing communication with
                        determinism and highly precise timing. Implementing
                        time-triggered architectures in software requires
                        significant development effort and computational power.
                        This paper shows a scalable HW/SW co-design approach for
                        new real-time Ethernet controllers based on the
                        partitioning into communication and application components.
                        The tasks required for communication are divided:
                        Time-critical and computationally intensive parts are
                        realised in dedicated hardware modules allowing the
                        attached CPU to fulfil the timing requirements of the
                        automotive application without interference. The evaluation
                        using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based
                        prototype implementation shows that the precision for the
                        time-triggered transmission and the performance of the
                        proposed implementation of the required synchronisation
                        protocols satisfies the requirements of applications in the
                        automotive domain.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Ruben Jungnickel, and Franz Korf. Object Tracking and Dynamic Estimation on Evidential Grids. In: 17th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2014). Pages 2310—2316, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Autonomous driving is one of the most challenging tasks of the automotive industry. As a subtask, the estimation of driveable and non driveable space is often solved by applying occupancy grids. The information about non driveable space can be used to improve object tracking. This paper presents an approach for object tracking and modelling in an occupancy grid map. Tracking objects on grid cells yields the advantage of a consistent environmental model on the occupancy grid map. We introduce the occupancy grid map as the only information source for the object tracking module. Taking advantage of the Dempster Shafer theory, a dynamic belief of conflicting cells can be estimated. This dynamic belief is then accumulated in a tracked object model. This is a grid based free form object model that uses detached grid cells to model vehicles in urban environment. We reduce false positives and initialization time by maintaining a dynamic belief for each object.

      @InProceedings{   jk-otdee-14,
        author        = {Ruben Jungnickel AND Franz Korf},
        title         = {{Object Tracking and Dynamic Estimation on Evidential
                        Grids}},
        booktitle     = {17th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent
                        Transportation Systems (ITSC 2014)},
        location      = {Qingdao, China},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {2310--2316},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-6165-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ITSC.2014.6958060},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {6958060},
        abstract      = {Autonomous driving is one of the most challenging tasks of
                        the automotive industry. As a subtask, the estimation of
                        driveable and non driveable space is often solved by
                        applying occupancy grids. The information about non
                        driveable space can be used to improve object tracking.
                        This paper presents an approach for object tracking and
                        modelling in an occupancy grid map. Tracking objects on
                        grid cells yields the advantage of a consistent
                        environmental model on the occupancy grid map. We introduce
                        the occupancy grid map as the only information source for
                        the object tracking module. Taking advantage of the
                        Dempster Shafer theory, a dynamic belief of conflicting
                        cells can be estimated. This dynamic belief is then
                        accumulated in a tracked object model. This is a grid based
                        free form object model that uses detached grid cells to
                        model vehicles in urban environment. We reduce false
                        positives and initialization time by maintaining a dynamic
                        belief for each object.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Jan Kamieth, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Design of TDMA-based In-Car Networks: Applying Multiprocessor Scheduling Strategies on Time-triggered Switched Ethernet Communication. In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2014). Pages 1—9, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Real-time Ethernet variants gain importance for communication infrastructure of various time-critical domains, such as in-car networks. Synchronous time-triggered traffic guarantees strict timing but requires a detailed schedule for all participants. Designing these schedules by hand is extensive work and with increasing network size almost impossible. In this paper, we contribute a mapping of the time-triggered network scheduling problem into the domain of multiprocessor scheduling. This set of transformation rules allows us to apply established scheduling algorithms as well as new strategies to organise time-triggered switched networks. Experimental results from a prototype implementation of a scheduling framework based on this mapping show the feasibility of our concept. The framework demonstrates a multiple solver approach that uses algorithms with different optimality criteria in parallel.

      @InProceedings{   ksks-dtina-14,
        author        = {Jan Kamieth AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas
                        C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Design of TDMA-based In-Car Networks: Applying
                        Multiprocessor Scheduling Strategies on Time-triggered
                        Switched Ethernet Communication}},
        booktitle     = {19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging
                        Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2014)},
        location      = {Barcelona},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {1--9},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-4846-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005119},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7005119},
        abstract      = {Real-time Ethernet variants gain importance for
                        communication infrastructure of various time-critical
                        domains, such as in-car networks. Synchronous
                        time-triggered traffic guarantees strict timing but
                        requires a detailed schedule for all participants.
                        Designing these schedules by hand is extensive work and
                        with increasing network size almost impossible. In this
                        paper, we contribute a mapping of the time-triggered
                        network scheduling problem into the domain of
                        multiprocessor scheduling. This set of transformation rules
                        allows us to apply established scheduling algorithms as
                        well as new strategies to organise time-triggered switched
                        networks. Experimental results from a prototype
                        implementation of a scheduling framework based on this
                        mapping show the feasibility of our concept. The framework
                        demonstrates a multiple solver approach that uses
                        algorithms with different optimality criteria in
                        parallel.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Till Steinbach, Kai Müller, Franz Korf, and René Röllig. Real-time Ethernet In-Car Backbones: First Insights into an Automotive Prototype. In: 2014 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). Pages 137—138, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Dec. 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      The communication infrastructure of today's automobiles forms a complex composition of heterogeneously interconnected components. At the same time, demands for higher bandwidth and low-latency communication are emerging from chassis control, camera based driver assistance and infotainment that cannot be accommodated by established technologies. A new approach towards a flexible highly scalable network is real-time Ethernet. The RECBAR research project develops and evaluates concepts and technologies for next-generation in-car backbones. In this demo we show a prototype based on a 2014 Volkswagen Golf 7 series car additionally equipped with high-bandwidth sensors, such as HD cameras and 3D laser scanners. The car uses a backbone network utilising time-triggered real-time Ethernet for the deterministic transmission of messages with hard real-time as well as rate-limiting and best-effort frames for messages with relaxed timing requirements. On the physical layer the setup utilises the OPEN Alliance 100Mbit/s BroadR-Reach (OABR or 100 BASE-T1) in addition to 100 BASE-TX.

      @InProceedings{   smkr-reicb-14,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Kai M{\"u}ller AND Franz Korf AND
                        Ren{\'e} R{\"o}llig},
        title         = {{Real-time Ethernet In-Car Backbones: First Insights into
                        an Automotive Prototype}},
        booktitle     = {2014 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)},
        location      = {Paderborn},
        month         = dec,
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {137--138},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-7659-1},
        issn          = {2157-9865},
        doi           = {10.1109/VNC.2014.7013331},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7013331},
        abstract      = {The communication infrastructure of today's automobiles
                        forms a complex composition of heterogeneously
                        interconnected components. At the same time, demands for
                        higher bandwidth and low-latency communication are emerging
                        from chassis control, camera based driver assistance and
                        infotainment that cannot be accommodated by established
                        technologies. A new approach towards a flexible highly
                        scalable network is real-time Ethernet. The RECBAR research
                        project develops and evaluates concepts and technologies
                        for next-generation in-car backbones. In this demo we show
                        a prototype based on a 2014 Volkswagen Golf 7 series car
                        additionally equipped with high-bandwidth sensors, such as
                        HD cameras and 3D laser scanners. The car uses a backbone
                        network utilising time-triggered real-time Ethernet for the
                        deterministic transmission of messages with hard real-time
                        as well as rate-limiting and best-effort frames for
                        messages with relaxed timing requirements. On the physical
                        layer the setup utilises the OPEN Alliance 100Mbit/s
                        BroadR-Reach (OABR or 100 BASE-T1) in addition to 100
                        BASE-TX.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Florian Bartols, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, Bettina Buth, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Real-time Ethernet Residual Bus Simulation: A Model-Based Testing Approach for the Next-Generation In-Car Network. In: 22nd International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS) 2014. Pages 267—276, New York, Oct. 2014, ACM-DL,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [ACM DL], [Bibtex]

      The increasing complexity of automotive networks, their challenging timing constraints and their high bandwidth demands require new concepts for future in-car communication. Real-time Ethernet is meant to be a suitable candidate for the next-generation in-car interconnection. However, model-based testing capabilities must be available as well. Applications must be validated prior the first assembly, due to the distributed development process. Methods like residual bus simulation are of particular interest to allow for testing systems in early development stages by emulating unfinished or not available parts of the system. In this paper, we present a methodology and a feasibility study of a residual bus simulation in automotive real-time Ethernet systems. The challenges of applying this testing method in real-time Ethernet based networks with parallel packet transmission are outlined and compared to today's automotive bus system simulation approaches. Furthermore, the combination of different model-based testing techniques, that are not used in state-of-the-art commercial tools, are applied for the validation of non-functional timing requirements. An extension to an existing abstract test case model is proposed, which allows modelling temporal attributes. It is simultaneously used as simulation model to drive the residual bus simulation. We demonstrate the approach's feasibility by implementing a prototype residual bus simulator for real-time Ethernet networks and applying it to an example application.

      @InProceedings{   bskbs-rerbs-14,
        author        = {Florian Bartols AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Bettina Buth AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Real-time Ethernet Residual Bus Simulation: A Model-Based
                        Testing Approach for the Next-Generation In-Car Network}},
        booktitle     = {22nd International Conference on Real-Time Networks and
                        Systems (RTNS) 2014},
        location      = {Versailles, France},
        month         = oct,
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {267--276},
        publisher     = {ACM-DL},
        address       = {New York},
        isbn          = {978-1-4503-2727-5},
        doi           = {10.1145/2659787.2659800},
        eprinttype    = {acmdl},
        eprint        = {2659800},
        abstract      = {The increasing complexity of automotive networks, their
                        challenging timing constraints and their high bandwidth
                        demands require new concepts for future in-car
                        communication. Real-time Ethernet is meant to be a suitable
                        candidate for the next-generation in-car interconnection.
                        However, model-based testing capabilities must be available
                        as well. Applications must be validated prior the first
                        assembly, due to the distributed development process.
                        Methods like residual bus simulation are of particular
                        interest to allow for testing systems in early development
                        stages by emulating unfinished or not available parts of
                        the system. In this paper, we present a methodology and a
                        feasibility study of a residual bus simulation in
                        automotive real-time Ethernet systems. The challenges of
                        applying this testing method in real-time Ethernet based
                        networks with parallel packet transmission are outlined and
                        compared to today's automotive bus system simulation
                        approaches. Furthermore, the combination of different
                        model-based testing techniques, that are not used in
                        state-of-the-art commercial tools, are applied for the
                        validation of non-functional timing requirements. An
                        extension to an existing abstract test case model is
                        proposed, which allows modelling temporal attributes. It is
                        simultaneously used as simulation model to drive the
                        residual bus simulation. We demonstrate the approach's
                        feasibility by implementing a prototype residual bus
                        simulator for real-time Ethernet networks and applying it
                        to an example application.},
        langid        = {english},
        series        = {RTNS '14}
      }
    • Anna Förster, Christoph Sommer, Till Steinbach, and Matthias Wählisch. Proceedings of the 1st OMNeT++ Community Summit, Hamburg, Germany, September 2, 2014. Aug. 2014, ArXiv e-prints,
      [ArXiv], [Bibtex]
      @Proceedings{     fssw-ocshg-14,
        editor        = {Anna F{\"o}rster AND Christoph Sommer AND Till Steinbach
                        AND Matthias W{\"a}hlisch},
        title         = {{Proceedings of the 1st OMNeT++ Community Summit, Hamburg,
                        Germany, September 2, 2014}},
        month         = aug,
        year          = 2014,
        publisher     = {ArXiv e-prints},
        eprinttype    = {arxiv},
        eprint        = {1409.0093},
        eprintclass   = {cs.PF},
        keywords      = {Computer Science - Performance, I.6, C.2.0, C.4, D.4.8},
        langid        = {english}
      }

    2013

    • Philipp Meyer, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Extending IEEE 802.1 AVB with Time-triggered Scheduling: A Simulation Study of the Coexistence of Synchronous and Asynchronous Traffic. In: 2013 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). Pages 47—54, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Dec. 2013, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      In-car networks based on Ethernet are expected to be the first choice for future applications in the domain of info- and entertainment. However, the full benefit of a technologically integrated in-car network will only become rewarding with an Ethernet-based backbone, unifying several automotive domains in a single infrastructure. Today, there is remarkable interest in the IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) protocol suite, that provides end-to-end performance guarantees in Ethernet networks. But for the strict timing requirements of automotive control-traffic, these guarantees are too weak. An extension of Ethernet AVB with synchronous time-triggered traffic can overcome these limitations. In this paper, we investigate the coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous traffic by experimentally adding time-triggered messages to the credit-based shaper of AVB in a straightforward way. Based on simulations and analytical evaluations, we quantify the impact of such integration concepts for a reasonable design range. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a shaping strategy with concurrent AVB and time-triggered message, but show a significant impact of the schedule design on the asynchronous AVB streams. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations for configurations that can improve end-to-end network performance for in-car applications by over 100 percent

      @InProceedings{   msks-eatts-13,
        author        = {Philipp Meyer AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas
                        C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Extending IEEE 802.1 AVB with Time-triggered Scheduling:
                        A Simulation Study of the Coexistence of Synchronous and
                        Asynchronous Traffic}},
        booktitle     = {2013 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)},
        location      = {Boston, Massachusetts},
        month         = dec,
        year          = 2013,
        pages         = {47--54},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-2686-2},
        issn          = {2157-9865},
        doi           = {10.1109/VNC.2013.6737589},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {6737589},
        abstract      = {In-car networks based on Ethernet are expected to be the
                        first choice for future applications in the domain of info-
                        and entertainment. However, the full benefit of a
                        technologically integrated in-car network will only become
                        rewarding with an Ethernet-based backbone, unifying several
                        automotive domains in a single infrastructure. Today, there
                        is remarkable interest in the IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video
                        Bridging (AVB) protocol suite, that provides end-to-end
                        performance guarantees in Ethernet networks. But for the
                        strict timing requirements of automotive control-traffic,
                        these guarantees are too weak. An extension of Ethernet AVB
                        with synchronous time-triggered traffic can overcome these
                        limitations. In this paper, we investigate the coexistence
                        of synchronous and asynchronous traffic by experimentally
                        adding time-triggered messages to the credit-based shaper
                        of AVB in a straightforward way. Based on simulations and
                        analytical evaluations, we quantify the impact of such
                        integration concepts for a reasonable design range. Our
                        results demonstrate the feasibility of a shaping strategy
                        with concurrent AVB and time-triggered message, but show a
                        significant impact of the schedule design on the
                        asynchronous AVB streams. Based on our findings, we provide
                        recommendations for configurations that can improve
                        end-to-end network performance for in-car applications by
                        over 100 percent},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Lazar T. Todorov, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Evaluating Requirements of High Precision Time Synchronisation Protocols using Simulation. In: Proceedings of the 6th International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques. Pages 307—313, New York, Mar. 2013, ACM-DL,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [ACM DL], [Bibtex]

      High precision time synchronisation protocols are used in distributed real-time systems such as trains, planes, cars or industrial installations. In time-triggered systems, with a coordinated time division multiple access media allocation strategy, the achievable precision of time synchronisation among sending participants determines the quality of communication and the available bandwidth. The simulation of time synchronisation protocols allows to find problems at the earliest time — in general, during the design and configuration — of a synchronised distributed system. In this work we show a concept for the simulation of distributed real-time synchronisation protocols that uses discrete event-based simulation. Our model for the OMNeT++ Framework is adaptable and thus allows for providing highly accurate results or fast simulations. The precise simulation of a real-time synchronisation protocol usually consumes considerable simulation time. This paper presents an approach to speed up accurate simulation, based on recordings of previous runs. We evaluate typical real-world use cases for the introduced concept by simulating the AS6802 standard for time synchronisation. Our results show that the simulation can help to reduce the effort of determining configuration parameters for clock synchronisation protocols. We further quantify the performance increase of our evolutionary approach.

      @InProceedings{   tsks-erhpt-13,
        author        = {Lazar T. Todorov AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Evaluating Requirements of High Precision Time
                        Synchronisation Protocols using Simulation}},
        booktitle     = {Proceedings of the 6th International ICST Conference on
                        Simulation Tools and Techniques},
        location      = {Cannes, France},
        month         = mar,
        year          = 2013,
        pages         = {307--313},
        publisher     = {ACM-DL},
        address       = {New York},
        isbn          = {978-1-4503-2464-9},
        eprinttype    = {acmdl},
        eprint        = {2512778},
        abstract      = {High precision time synchronisation protocols are used in
                        distributed real-time systems such as trains, planes, cars
                        or industrial installations. In time-triggered systems,
                        with a coordinated time division multiple access media
                        allocation strategy, the achievable precision of time
                        synchronisation among sending participants determines the
                        quality of communication and the available bandwidth. The
                        simulation of time synchronisation protocols allows to find
                        problems at the earliest time -- in general, during the
                        design and configuration -- of a synchronised distributed
                        system. In this work we show a concept for the simulation
                        of distributed real-time synchronisation protocols that
                        uses discrete event-based simulation. Our model for the
                        OMNeT++ Framework is adaptable and thus allows for
                        providing highly accurate results or fast simulations. The
                        precise simulation of a real-time synchronisation protocol
                        usually consumes considerable simulation time. This paper
                        presents an approach to speed up accurate simulation, based
                        on recordings of previous runs. We evaluate typical
                        real-world use cases for the introduced concept by
                        simulating the AS6802 standard for time synchronisation.
                        Our results show that the simulation can help to reduce the
                        effort of determining configuration parameters for clock
                        synchronisation protocols. We further quantify the
                        performance increase of our evolutionary approach.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Stefan Buschmann, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Simulation based Timing Analysis of FlexRay Communication at System Level. In: Proceedings of the 6th International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques. Pages 285—290, New York, Mar. 2013, ACM-DL,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [ACM DL], [Bibtex]

      In modern cars the communication infrastructure consists of different application specific bus systems that are interconnected with each other. Due to the growing complexity of the communication infrastructure, the corresponding timing analysis at system level is currently a hot topic in the automotive industry. FlexRay is a state-of-the-art fieldbus for cars. While FlexRay simulations below system level are already established in automotive tool chains, FlexRay system level simulation is not yet common. This paper focuses on simulation-based timing analyses for FlexRay communication. Based on different scenarios the practical relevance is shown. The performance results promise that our simulation approach is a good building block for the simulation of heterogeneous communication consisting of several bus systems and technologies. An evaluation of the simulation results in comparison with the CANoe network simulator proves the conformance of the implementation with the FlexRay specification.

      @InProceedings{   bsks-stafc-13,
        author        = {Stefan Buschmann AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Simulation based Timing Analysis of FlexRay Communication
                        at System Level}},
        booktitle     = {Proceedings of the 6th International ICST Conference on
                        Simulation Tools and Techniques},
        location      = {Cannes, France},
        month         = mar,
        year          = 2013,
        pages         = {285--290},
        publisher     = {ACM-DL},
        address       = {New York},
        isbn          = {978-1-4503-2464-9},
        eprinttype    = {acmdl},
        eprint        = {2512775},
        abstract      = {In modern cars the communication infrastructure consists
                        of different application specific bus systems that are
                        interconnected with each other. Due to the growing
                        complexity of the communication infrastructure, the
                        corresponding timing analysis at system level is currently
                        a hot topic in the automotive industry. FlexRay is a
                        state-of-the-art fieldbus for cars. While FlexRay
                        simulations below system level are already established in
                        automotive tool chains, FlexRay system level simulation is
                        not yet common. This paper focuses on simulation-based
                        timing analyses for FlexRay communication. Based on
                        different scenarios the practical relevance is shown. The
                        performance results promise that our simulation approach is
                        a good building block for the simulation of heterogeneous
                        communication consisting of several bus systems and
                        technologies. An evaluation of the simulation results in
                        comparison with the CANoe network simulator proves the
                        conformance of the implementation with the FlexRay
                        specification.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Oleg Karfich, Florian Bartols, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. A Hardware/Software Platform for Real-time Ethernet Cluster Simulation in OMNeT++. In: Proceedings of the 6th International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques. Pages 334—337, New York, Mar. 2013, ACM-DL,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Poster (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [ACM DL], [Bibtex]

      Cluster simulation is a popular method for supporting system integration in various distributed applications by simulating the environment of a subsystem under test. Particularly in real-time systems, the timing requirements of transmission and reception must be fulfilled, which is not easy to achieve. In this paper, we contribute a scheme for cluster simulation of real-time Ethernet (RTEthernet) based distributed systems. It relies on the discrete event-based simulation framework OMNeT++, interconnected with an ARM-based co-processor. Our approach allows coupling a real-world RTEthernet subsystem with virtual components running in the discrete simulation, that realise the required behaviour for the subsystem. We have evaluated the performance limits of our approach regarding latency and jitter, when running the simulation on a Linux system with the real-time Kernel patch. The results show that the timing requirements for the cluster simulation of small RTEthernet networks can be achieved.

      @InProceedings{   ksbks-hspre-13,
        ids           = {ksbks-eifre-13},
        author        = {Oleg Karfich AND Florian Bartols AND Till Steinbach AND
                        Franz Korf AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{A Hardware/Software Platform for Real-time Ethernet
                        Cluster Simulation in OMNeT++}},
        booktitle     = {Proceedings of the 6th International ICST Conference on
                        Simulation Tools and Techniques},
        location      = {Cannes, France},
        month         = mar,
        year          = 2013,
        pages         = {334--337},
        publisher     = {ACM-DL},
        address       = {New York},
        isbn          = {978-1-4503-2464-9},
        eprinttype    = {acmdl},
        eprint        = {2512782},
        abstract      = {Cluster simulation is a popular method for supporting
                        system integration in various distributed applications by
                        simulating the environment of a subsystem under test.
                        Particularly in real-time systems, the timing requirements
                        of transmission and reception must be fulfilled, which is
                        not easy to achieve. In this paper, we contribute a scheme
                        for cluster simulation of real-time Ethernet (RTEthernet)
                        based distributed systems. It relies on the discrete
                        event-based simulation framework OMNeT++, interconnected
                        with an ARM-based co-processor. Our approach allows
                        coupling a real-world RTEthernet subsystem with virtual
                        components running in the discrete simulation, that realise
                        the required behaviour for the subsystem. We have evaluated
                        the performance limits of our approach regarding latency
                        and jitter, when running the simulation on a Linux system
                        with the real-time Kernel patch. The results show that the
                        timing requirements for the cluster simulation of small
                        RTEthernet networks can be achieved.},
        langid        = {english}
      }

    2012

    • Giuliana Alderisi, Alfio Caltabiano, Giancarlo Vasta, Giancarlo Iannizzotto, Till Steinbach, and Lucia Lo Bello. Simulative Assessments of IEEE 802.1 Ethernet AVB and Time-Triggered Ethernet for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and In-Car Infotainment. In: 2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC),. Pages 187—194, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Nov. 2012, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Investigations into the usage of Ethernet in automobiles is in progress in academia, the car industry and companies producing automotive electronic devices. The interest in Ethernet is motivated by the high bandwidth and scalability provided. It is a well experienced technology with support for the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. Ethernet as in-car network is expected to breakthrough in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) involving cameras and in the multimedia domain. Both the IEEE Audio Video Bridging (AVB) standard and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE) are promising candidates. This paper presents a simulation study aimed to investigate the behavior of these technologies when supporting ADAS and multimedia traffic on star-based networks under varying workload. The performance under different operating conditions is presented and discussed.

      @InProceedings{   acvis-saeat-12,
        author        = {Giuliana Alderisi AND Alfio Caltabiano AND Giancarlo Vasta
                        AND Giancarlo Iannizzotto AND Till Steinbach AND Lucia Lo
                        Bello},
        title         = {{Simulative Assessments of IEEE 802.1 Ethernet AVB and
                        Time-Triggered Ethernet for Advanced Driver Assistance
                        Systems and In-Car Infotainment}},
        booktitle     = {2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC),},
        month         = nov,
        year          = 2012,
        pages         = {187--194},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4673-4996-3},
        issn          = {2157-9857},
        doi           = {10.1109/VNC.2012.6407430},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {6407430},
        abstract      = {Investigations into the usage of Ethernet in automobiles
                        is in progress in academia, the car industry and companies
                        producing automotive electronic devices. The interest in
                        Ethernet is motivated by the high bandwidth and scalability
                        provided. It is a well experienced technology with support
                        for the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. Ethernet as in-car
                        network is expected to breakthrough in Advanced Driver
                        Assistance Systems (ADAS) involving cameras and in the
                        multimedia domain. Both the IEEE Audio Video Bridging (AVB)
                        standard and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE) are promising
                        candidates. This paper presents a simulation study aimed to
                        investigate the behavior of these technologies when
                        supporting ADAS and multimedia traffic on star-based
                        networks under varying workload. The performance under
                        different operating conditions is presented and
                        discussed.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Till Steinbach, Hyung-Taek Lim, Franz Korf, Thomas C. Schmidt, Daniel Herrscher, and Adam Wolisz. Tomorrow's In-Car Interconnect? A Competitive Evaluation of IEEE 802.1 AVB and Time-Triggered Ethernet (AS6802). In: 2012 IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall). Piscataway, NJ, USA, Sep. 2012, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Ethernet-based in-car communication is currently a hot topic in the automotive industry. Soon Ethernet will start to oust MOST bus in its domain of info- and entertainment applications. However, the full benefit of a technologically integrated in-car network will only become rewarding with the deployment of an Ethernet-based backbone that integrates all automotive domains on a single layer at increased bandwidth, reduced complexity and cost, while opening car intelligence for future innovations. Such backbone must transport critical control data in real-time. Standard Ethernet requires extensions to comply with the strict timing requirements of driver assistance and safety applications while simultaneously supporting broadband multimedia traffic. In this paper, we compare IEEE 802.1 AVB and Time-triggered Ethernet, two competing real-time approaches. While the first fosters over- provisioning and prioritisation, the second is based on a coordinated time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) policy for media access. By simulating a realistic in-car backbone design and traffic model, we reveal the strengths and weaknesses of both protocols and point to the diverging characteristics of event- and time-triggered policies. Our results show that in this in-car network scenario both protocols are able to meet the rigid timing requirements, while each has its unique benefits and disadvantages.

      @InProceedings{   slksh-tiice-12,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Hyung-Taek Lim AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt AND Daniel Herrscher AND Adam Wolisz},
        title         = {{Tomorrow's In-Car Interconnect? A Competitive Evaluation
                        of IEEE 802.1 AVB and Time-Triggered Ethernet (AS6802)}},
        booktitle     = {2012 IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall)},
        month         = sep,
        year          = 2012,
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        issn          = {1090-3038},
        doi           = {10.1109/VTCFall.2012.6398932},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {6398932},
        abstract      = {Ethernet-based in-car communication is currently a hot
                        topic in the automotive industry. Soon Ethernet will start
                        to oust MOST bus in its domain of info- and entertainment
                        applications. However, the full benefit of a
                        technologically integrated in-car network will only become
                        rewarding with the deployment of an Ethernet-based backbone
                        that integrates all automotive domains on a single layer at
                        increased bandwidth, reduced complexity and cost, while
                        opening car intelligence for future innovations. Such
                        backbone must transport critical control data in real-time.
                        Standard Ethernet requires extensions to comply with the
                        strict timing requirements of driver assistance and safety
                        applications while simultaneously supporting broadband
                        multimedia traffic. In this paper, we compare IEEE 802.1
                        AVB and Time-triggered Ethernet, two competing real-time
                        approaches. While the first fosters over- provisioning and
                        prioritisation, the second is based on a coordinated
                        time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) policy for media
                        access. By simulating a realistic in-car backbone design
                        and traffic model, we reveal the strengths and weaknesses
                        of both protocols and point to the diverging
                        characteristics of event- and time-triggered policies. Our
                        results show that in this in-car network scenario both
                        protocols are able to meet the rigid timing requirements,
                        while each has its unique benefits and disadvantages.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Simulation und Evaluation von Echtzeit-Ethernet in Fahrzeugnetzen. In: PIK - Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation. Pages 67—74, Berlin, Mai. 2012, De Gruyter,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Bibtex]

      Die Zunahme von elektronischen Systemen insbesondere im Fahrerassistenz- und Komfortbereich der Fahrzeuge drängt die etablierten Automotive-Kommunikations\-technologien an die Grenze ihrer Leistungsfähigkeit. Ein neuer Ansatz für die Kommunikation zwischen Steuergeräten ist Ethernet im Automobil. Echtzeiterweiterungen haben den Einsatzbereich von Standard-Switched-Ethernet auf zeitkritische Anwendungen ausgedehnt. Diese Arbeit stellt eine simulationsbasierte Evaluationsstrategie für Echtzeit-Ethernet-basierte Vermittlungsinfrastrukturen im Fahrzeug vor. Wir führen eine gründliche Analyse des zugrundeliegenden Simulationsmodells durch, welche die Simulationsergebnisse mit Berechnungen eines mathematischen Modells und Messungen auf echter Hardware vergleicht. Sehr präzise Übereinstimmungen belegen die Gültigkeit der Implementierung und der mit ihr ermittelten Kenngrößen.

      @Article{         sks-seeef-12,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Simulation und Evaluation von Echtzeit-Ethernet in
                        Fahrzeugnetzen}},
        journal       = {PIK - Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und
                        Kommunikation},
        month         = may,
        year          = 2012,
        pages         = {67--74},
        volume        = {35},
        number        = {2},
        publisher     = {De Gruyter},
        address       = {Berlin},
        issn          = {0930-5157},
        abstract      = {Die Zunahme von elektronischen Systemen insbesondere im
                        Fahrerassistenz- und Komfortbereich der Fahrzeuge
                        dr{\"a}ngt die etablierten
                        Automotive-Kommunikations\-technologien an die Grenze ihrer
                        Leistungsf{\"a}higkeit. Ein neuer Ansatz f{\"u}r die
                        Kommunikation zwischen Steuerger{\"a}ten ist Ethernet im
                        Automobil. Echtzeiterweiterungen haben den Einsatzbereich
                        von Standard-Switched-Ethernet auf zeitkritische
                        Anwendungen ausgedehnt. Diese Arbeit stellt eine
                        simulationsbasierte Evaluationsstrategie f{\"u}r
                        Echtzeit-Ethernet-basierte Vermittlungsinfrastrukturen im
                        Fahrzeug vor. Wir f{\"u}hren eine gr{\"u}ndliche Analyse
                        des zugrundeliegenden Simulationsmodells durch, welche die
                        Simulationsergebnisse mit Berechnungen eines mathematischen
                        Modells und Messungen auf echter Hardware vergleicht. Sehr
                        pr{\"a}zise {\"U}bereinstimmungen belegen die
                        G{\"u}ltigkeit der Implementierung und der mit ihr
                        ermittelten Kenngr{\"o}{\ss}en.},
        langid        = {ngerman}
      }

    2011

    • Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Real-time Ethernet for Automotive Applications: A Solution for Future In-Car Networks. In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin). Pages 216—220, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Sep. 2011, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Data networks of today's automobiles form a complex conglomerate of heterogeneously interconnected components. At the same time, high additional demands for future in-car communication systems are emerging from chassis control, camera based driver assistance and infotainment that cannot be accommodated by established technologies. A new approach towards a flexible highly scalable in-car network is real-time Ethernet. In this paper we discuss the upcoming requirements and argue why current in-car network designs are not suitable for future tasks. By demonstrating how a camera based time-critical driver assistance application can be integrated into a real-time Ethernet based in-car network, we present a typical use case for automotive broadband real-time communication and show application related design and configuration decisions.

      @InProceedings{   sks-reaas-11,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Real-time Ethernet for Automotive Applications: A
                        Solution for Future In-Car Networks}},
        booktitle     = {2011 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics
                        - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin)},
        location      = {Berlin},
        month         = sep,
        year          = 2011,
        pages         = {216--220},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4577-0233-4},
        doi           = {10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2011.6031843},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {6031843},
        abstract      = {Data networks of today's automobiles form a complex
                        conglomerate of heterogeneously interconnected components.
                        At the same time, high additional demands for future in-car
                        communication systems are emerging from chassis control,
                        camera based driver assistance and infotainment that cannot
                        be accommodated by established technologies. A new approach
                        towards a flexible highly scalable in-car network is
                        real-time Ethernet. In this paper we discuss the upcoming
                        requirements and argue why current in-car network designs
                        are not suitable for future tasks. By demonstrating how a
                        camera based time-critical driver assistance application
                        can be integrated into a real-time Ethernet based in-car
                        network, we present a typical use case for automotive
                        broadband real-time communication and show application
                        related design and configuration decisions.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Kai Müller, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. A Real-time Ethernet Prototype Platform for Automotive Applications. In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin). Pages 221—225, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Sep. 2011, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      The increasing number of driver assistance, infotainment and entertainment systems in automobiles results in higher requirements for bandwidth, fault tolerance and timing behaviour concerning the in-vehicle communication structure. In future, in-vehicle networks based on current technologies will reach their limits due to insufficient scalability and complexity. Real-time (RT) Ethernet is a new, scalable approach to reduce the complexity of these networks significantly. This paper demonstrates the architecture of a RT Ethernet prototype platform based on an ARM centred system-on-chip, which achieves timing and bandwidth characteristics of a typical future automotive application. It is based on an advanced interrupt driven architecture.

      @InProceedings{   msks-reppa-11,
        author        = {Kai M{\"u}ller AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{A Real-time Ethernet Prototype Platform for Automotive
                        Applications}},
        booktitle     = {2011 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics
                        - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin)},
        location      = {Berlin},
        month         = sep,
        year          = 2011,
        pages         = {221--225},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4577-0233-4},
        doi           = {10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2011.6031866},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {6031866},
        abstract      = {The increasing number of driver assistance, infotainment
                        and entertainment systems in automobiles results in higher
                        requirements for bandwidth, fault tolerance and timing
                        behaviour concerning the in-vehicle communication
                        structure. In future, in-vehicle networks based on current
                        technologies will reach their limits due to insufficient
                        scalability and complexity. Real-time (RT) Ethernet is a
                        new, scalable approach to reduce the complexity of these
                        networks significantly. This paper demonstrates the
                        architecture of a RT Ethernet prototype platform based on
                        an ARM centred system-on-chip, which achieves timing and
                        bandwidth characteristics of a typical future automotive
                        application. It is based on an advanced interrupt driven
                        architecture.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Simulationsbasierte Evaluierung von Metriken in Echtzeit-Ethernet basierten Fahrzeugnetzen. In: 6ter GI/ITG-Workshop Leistungs-, Zuverlässigkeits- und Verlässlichkeitsbewertung von Kommunikationsnetzen und verteilten Systeme (MMBnet 2011). Pages 9—20, Hamburg, Aug. 2011, Universität Hamburg,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Bibtex]

      Durch die Zunahme von elektronischen Systemen, insbesondere im Fahrerassistenz- und Komfortbereich, kommen die etablierten Automotive-Kommunikationstechnologien an die Grenze ihrer Leistungsfähigkeit. Ein neuer Ansatz für die Kommunikation zwischen Steuergeräten im Automobil ist der Einsatz von Ethernet. Echtzeit-Erweiterungen haben den Einsatzbereich von standard switched Ethernet auf zeitkritische Anwendungen ausgedehnt. Diese Arbeit leistet einen Beitrag zur Bewertung dieser neuen Konzepte, indem eine simulationsbasierte Evaluierungstrategie für die Ermittlung von Kenngrößen (Metriken) Echtzeit- Ethernet-basierter Vermittlungsinfrastrukturen entwickelt wird. Eine gründliche Analyse des Simulationsmodells, welche die Simulationsergebnisse mit Berechnungen eines mathematischen Modells und Messungen auf echter Hardware vergleicht, belegt die Gültigkeit der Implementierung und der mit ihr ermittelten Kenngrößen.

      @InProceedings{   sks-semef-11,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        editor        = {Bernd E. Wolfinger AND Klaus-D. Heidtmann},
        title         = {{Simulationsbasierte Evaluierung von Metriken in
                        Echtzeit-Ethernet basierten Fahrzeugnetzen}},
        booktitle     = {6ter GI/ITG-Workshop Leistungs-, Zuverl{\"a}ssigkeits- und
                        Verl{\"a}sslichkeitsbewertung von Kommunikationsnetzen und
                        verteilten Systeme (MMBnet 2011)},
        location      = {Hamburg},
        month         = aug,
        year          = 2011,
        pages         = {9--20},
        publisher     = {Universit{\"a}t Hamburg},
        address       = {Hamburg},
        abstract      = {Durch die Zunahme von elektronischen Systemen,
                        insbesondere im Fahrerassistenz- und Komfortbereich, kommen
                        die etablierten Automotive-Kommunikationstechnologien an
                        die Grenze ihrer Leistungsf{\"a}higkeit. Ein neuer Ansatz
                        f{\"u}r die Kommunikation zwischen Steuerger{\"a}ten im
                        Automobil ist der Einsatz von Ethernet.
                        Echtzeit-Erweiterungen haben den Einsatzbereich von
                        standard switched Ethernet auf zeitkritische Anwendungen
                        ausgedehnt. Diese Arbeit leistet einen Beitrag zur
                        Bewertung dieser neuen Konzepte, indem eine
                        simulationsbasierte Evaluierungstrategie f{\"u}r die
                        Ermittlung von Kenngr{\"o}{\ss}en (Metriken) Echtzeit-
                        Ethernet-basierter Vermittlungsinfrastrukturen entwickelt
                        wird. Eine gr{\"u}ndliche Analyse des Simulationsmodells,
                        welche die Simulationsergebnisse mit Berechnungen eines
                        mathematischen Modells und Messungen auf echter Hardware
                        vergleicht, belegt die G{\"u}ltigkeit der Implementierung
                        und der mit ihr ermittelten Kenngr{\"o}{\ss}en.},
        langid        = {ngerman}
      }
    • Till Steinbach, Hermand Dieumo Kenfack, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. An Extension of the OMNeT++ INET Framework for Simulating Real-time Ethernet with High Accuracy. In: Proceedings of the 4th International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques. Pages 375—382, New York, Mar. 2011, ACM-DL,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [ACM DL], [Bibtex]

      Real-time extensions to standard switched Ethernet widen the realm of computer networking into the time-critical domain. These technologies have started to establish in process automation, while Ethernet-based communication infrastructures in vehicles are novel and challenged by particularly hard real-time constraints. Simulation tools are of vital importance to explore the technical feasibility and facilitate the distributed process of vehicle infrastructure design. This paper introduces an extension of the OMNeT++ INET framework for simulating real-time Ethernet with high temporal accuracy. Our module implements the TTEthernet protocol, a real-time extension to standard Ethernet that is proposed for standardisation. We present the major implementation aspects of the simulation model and apply our tool to an abstract in-vehicle backbone. A careful evaluation that compares our results with calculations obtained from a mathematical framework, as well as with real-world measurements using TTEthernet hardware shows simulation and reality in good agreement.

      @InProceedings{   sdkks-eifre-11,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Hermand {Dieumo Kenfack} AND Franz Korf
                        AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{An Extension of the OMNeT++ INET Framework for Simulating
                        Real-time Ethernet with High Accuracy}},
        booktitle     = {Proceedings of the 4th International ICST Conference on
                        Simulation Tools and Techniques},
        location      = {Barcelona, Spain},
        month         = mar,
        year          = 2011,
        pages         = {375--382},
        publisher     = {ACM-DL},
        address       = {New York},
        isbn          = {978-1-936968-00-8},
        eprinttype    = {acmdl},
        eprint        = {2151120},
        abstract      = {Real-time extensions to standard switched Ethernet widen
                        the realm of computer networking into the time-critical
                        domain. These technologies have started to establish in
                        process automation, while Ethernet-based communication
                        infrastructures in vehicles are novel and challenged by
                        particularly hard real-time constraints. Simulation tools
                        are of vital importance to explore the technical
                        feasibility and facilitate the distributed process of
                        vehicle infrastructure design. This paper introduces an
                        extension of the OMNeT++ INET framework for simulating
                        real-time Ethernet with high temporal accuracy. Our module
                        implements the TTEthernet protocol, a real-time extension
                        to standard Ethernet that is proposed for standardisation.
                        We present the major implementation aspects of the
                        simulation model and apply our tool to an abstract
                        in-vehicle backbone. A careful evaluation that compares our
                        results with calculations obtained from a mathematical
                        framework, as well as with real-world measurements using
                        TTEthernet hardware shows simulation and reality in good
                        agreement.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Florian Bartols, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Performance Analysis of Time-Triggered Ether-Networks Using Off-the-Shelf-Components. In: 14th IEEE International Symposium on Object\addslash Component\addslash Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing Workshops (ISORCW) 2011. Pages 49—56, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Mar. 2011, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      The performance analysis and validation of distributed real-time systems poses significant challenges due to high accuracy requirements at the measurement tools. A fully synchronized time-scale at ultrafine granularity is not easy to generate. Even though there are several analyzer tools for standard switched Ethernet, these tools cannot be applied in time-triggered networks, since they do not meet the requirements of synchronized packet generation. This paper introduces a low cost and lightweight approach to measure end-to-end latency of time-triggered Ethernet traffic with off-the-shelf components. By using standard computer hardware and a real-time Linux Kernel, it is shown that measurement can be achieved in a resolution of microseconds. Furthermore, a validation with an Ethernet performance analyzer and a mathematical framework is presented to check the given results.

      @InProceedings{   bsks-pateo-10,
        author        = {Florian Bartols AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Performance Analysis of Time-Triggered Ether-Networks
                        Using Off-the-Shelf-Components}},
        booktitle     = {14th IEEE International Symposium on
                        Object\addslash Component\addslash Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed
                        Computing Workshops (ISORCW) 2011},
        location      = {Newport Beach},
        month         = mar,
        year          = 2011,
        pages         = {49--56},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4577-0303-4},
        doi           = {10.1109/ISORCW.2011.16},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {5753511},
        abstract      = {The performance analysis and validation of distributed
                        real-time systems poses significant challenges due to high
                        accuracy requirements at the measurement tools. A fully
                        synchronized time-scale at ultrafine granularity is not
                        easy to generate. Even though there are several analyzer
                        tools for standard switched Ethernet, these tools cannot be
                        applied in time-triggered networks, since they do not meet
                        the requirements of synchronized packet generation. This
                        paper introduces a low cost and lightweight approach to
                        measure end-to-end latency of time-triggered Ethernet
                        traffic with off-the-shelf components. By using standard
                        computer hardware and a real-time Linux Kernel, it is shown
                        that measurement can be achieved in a resolution of
                        microseconds. Furthermore, a validation with an Ethernet
                        performance analyzer and a mathematical framework is
                        presented to check the given results.},
        langid        = {english}
      }

    2010

    • Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Comparing Time-Triggered Ethernet with FlexRay: An Evaluation of Competing Approaches to Real-time for In-Vehicle Networks. In: 8th IEEE Intern. Workshop on Factory Communication Systems. Pages 199—202, Piscataway, NJ, USA, May. 2010, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Poster (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      FlexRay is considered the next generation state-of-the-art technology for in-car networks, while time-triggered Ethernet emerges with the promise to integrate real-time and best-effort traffic into one homogeneous backbone. This paper contributes a competitive analysis of FlexRay and time-triggered Ethernet. By showing that it is possible to transfer a fully utilized FlexRay system, to a system based on time-triggered Ethernet, it is demonstrated that time-triggered Ethernet is a suitable replacement of current in-vehicle bus-systems. Further it is shown that a switched system has advantages in bandwidth utilization over a shared bus, when using group communication.

      @InProceedings{   sks-ctefe-10,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Comparing Time-Triggered Ethernet with FlexRay: An
                        Evaluation of Competing Approaches to Real-time for
                        In-Vehicle Networks}},
        booktitle     = {8th IEEE Intern. Workshop on Factory Communication
                        Systems},
        location      = {Nancy-France},
        month         = may,
        year          = 2010,
        pages         = {199--202},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        doi           = {10.1109/WFCS.2010.5548606},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {5548606},
        abstract      = {FlexRay is considered the next generation state-of-the-art
                        technology for in-car networks, while time-triggered
                        Ethernet emerges with the promise to integrate real-time
                        and best-effort traffic into one homogeneous backbone. This
                        paper contributes a competitive analysis of FlexRay and
                        time-triggered Ethernet. By showing that it is possible to
                        transfer a fully utilized FlexRay system, to a system based
                        on time-triggered Ethernet, it is demonstrated that
                        time-triggered Ethernet is a suitable replacement of
                        current in-vehicle bus-systems. Further it is shown that a
                        switched system has advantages in bandwidth utilization
                        over a shared bus, when using group communication.},
        langid        = {english}
      }